THIS BYSTANDER NOTED China’s Arctic ambition as long ago as 2010. Since then global warming has made northern shipping routes from Asia to Europe through the Arctic only more feasible as summer sea ice has further diminished.
In 2013, China acquired observer status at the Arctic Council, which comprises nations with an Arctic littoral (full members) or an interest in the region (observers). The previous year, the Ukraine-built diesel-powered Xue Long (Snow Dragon; seen above in 2010) then the world’s largest non-nuclear icebreaker, had made the first passage from China to Iceland through the far north.
It has been participating in Arctic research trips since 1999; China has had a research station on the Spitzbergen Archipelago since 2004. A larger and stronger indigenously designed version, the Xue Long 2, is due to come into service next year. It will be a hybrid research vessel-ice breaker that can carry up to 90 scientists and crew. Nuclear-powered icebreakers will follow. Development contracts were signed between the National Nuclear Corporation and State Shipbuilding Corporation in 2016.
Not only would a northern route through the Arctic lessen the costs and dangers of shipping Chinese goods to Europe via the traditional and lengthier sea routes through the Moluccan Straits, the Indian Ocean and the Horn of Africa, it would also make drilling for oil and gas a practical possibility. The region may hold up to a quarter of the world’s untapped fossil energy reserves.
On Friday, the State Council Information Office, the government information office directed towards foreign audiences, released an English-language white paper, China’s Arctic Policy, that sets out Beijing’s intentions towards the development (and conservation) of Arctic resources over the coming decades, in particular, shipping routes.
It manages to slip in the presumably intentionally eye-catching phrase, Polar Silk Road, there times but the document is mainly an affirmation of the long-standing position that China sees itself as having interests in the Arctic and intends to be active in the region’s economic development and governance.
Chinese mariners, fishermen, scientists, petroleum engineers and even tourists plying the increasingly less icy waters of the Arctic in ever more significant number, will concern Russia, for one. The United States will see yet more evidence of China’s asserting itself globally, notably when the white paper says responsibility for the region now goes beyond the eight nations, including Russia and the United States, with territorial sovereignty in the Arctic.