SUPPLY CHAINS, ALREADY under heightened stress because of the Ukraine conflict, face a new challenge from the latest Covid-19 lockdowns.
Congestion in the Yantian and Shekou container terminals at Shenzhen and the terminal in Hong Kong is at its worst in five months, leading to further delays in shipping to export markets.
Approximately 174 container ships are anchored or loading in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, the most since October 21 last year in the aftermath of Typhoon Kompasu.
The same is shaping up in Shanghai. In the north, the lines of vessels waiting to get into Qingdao port in Shandong were double the length mid-month that they were at the end of February.
The Omicron variant’s challenge to China’s zero-Covid strategy is making the congestion worse than that typically seen around Chinese ports after the Lunar New Year. The delays will have a ripple effect as shippers re-route cargo and loadings to other ports. Longer delays will also push up freight rates.
As well as affecting port operations, lockdowns have hit production, with factories being temporarily shuttered or allowed to operate under strict restrictions.
While Shenzhen has just eased its lockdown, Hong Kong is battling a fearsome outbreak of the Omicron variant. Shanghai, which handles more tonnage than either of the two southern shipping hubs, is still seeing a rise in infections. Although denied by authorities, rumours of a coming complete lockdown are circulating.
Urbanization and industrialization is a filthy business. Industry pollutes. More of it just pollutes more. As nation after nation has gone through the industrialization phase of rapid development, each has had to trade-off the benefits of growth and their environmental costs. China is no exception, but it puts great store on being green. We are directed to a new article published by McKinsey & Co., the firm of management consultants, which asks the question, how green are China’s cities. Its answer? The country’s push for sustainable urban development shows mixed results. As a whole, China’s cities don’t meet global benchmarks for sustainability, but things are getting better and there are examples of successes for the laggards to follow.
The article is based on a paper first published last year by a joint team from the firm, Tsinghua University and New York’s Columbia University. Its Urban Sustainability Index uses data from 2004-2008 and covers 112 cities in China. It groups 18 indicators in to five categories, from the provision of basic needs such as clean water to political and policy commitment to sustainability.
The commonalities among the successful cities were “an unwavering focus on industrial restructuring, designing sensible transit systems and green space, pushing improvements through standards, monitoring and pricing, and exploring ways to make industries more resource efficient.” As might be expected, the successes also “displayed a clear, long-standing commitment to achieving their sustainable ‘vision”… “engineered a large degree of cooperation among relevant departments, for instance between those responsible for environmental protection and urban planning”…and “maintained commitment to their overall goals through several changes in leadership”.
The greenest cities do well across all these measures. Some examples: Tianjin has been consolidating heavy industry away from urban centers, a taking advantage of the moves to make fewer but larger new plants more energy efficient. Shenyang has now got almost all its heavy industry out of its center and is redeveloping the brownfields left behind as residential districts. Qingdao, arguably China’s greenest city, has pushed redevelopment projects to follow mass transit routes, increasing bus ridership at the expense of more heavily polluting private vehicles. Kunming is a pioneer in giving buses priority on roads. Nanning has developed three greenbelts along the Yongjiang river as part of the creation of urban woodlands and green areas to absorb carbon dioxide emissions. Shandong province officials publicly identified the region’s 1,000 biggest polluters and set aggressive waste reduction targets for each of them.
We don’t underestimate the difficulty of implementing green policies, especially in a country where they require considerable coordination between often competing bureaucracies and in which the yardsticks of success against which local officials are measured (and promoted) have been ones of economic growth. Improving the quality of urban life is an objective of the new five-year plan and a high policy priority for the leadership. Gains are being made. The overwhelming majority of the 18 indicators in the Urban Sustainability Index show improvement during the study period. Yet the relatively limited amount of success stories so far among 112 cities also tells its own story.