MORE EVIDENCE THAT China’s economy is fitfully grinding out recovery from the ravages of Covid-19 comes from Caixin’s manufacturing purchasing managers’ index (PMI) for August.
This hit 53.1, up from 52.8 in July and was the fourth consecutive month of expansion. Readings above 50 signal growth.
Caixin’s index is more weighted to private sector manufacturing than the official index, whose August reading showed the pace of expansion levelling off from July, perhaps because of flood-disruption in western parts of the country. Non-manufacturing remains strong, however, with the official services PMI rising to 55.2 from July’s 54.2.
Caixin’s August number is in line with other data showing rising manufacturing exports and employment. Stimulus measures to offset the impact of Covid-19, equivalent to about 4% of GDP, are working through the economy, though they are investment-led, rather than directly supporting consumption. The policy drives for import substitution and technological self-sufficiency look to be kicking in, too.
Growth for the year of around 2% looks achievable, which would make China the only large economy to grow this year. Still, it is hard to escape the conclusion that for now demand still lags supply, and will do so until domestic small business gets back onto a sound footing, stimulus measures start to boost consumer sentiment and household spending, and economies around the world recover their strength, which looks the most distant prospect of the three.
The pause for breath in the recovery of China’s economy from the 2011–12 slowdown has extended for another month. The official purchasing managers’ index (PMI) for April fell unexpectedly to 50.6 from March’s 50.9. The forecast had been that it would break above 51. The reported number reflects a similar softening reflected in HSBC’s preliminary PMI number announced last week.
The official indicator best reflects activity at larger enterprises and HSBC’s that at small and medium sized ones, suggesting the soft patch is being experienced across the economy. That, indeed, seems to be happening across the global economy, too, affecting demand for Chinese goods: the new export orders sub-index in the April official PMI fell below the 50 level that delineates expansion from contraction; the same sub-index in HSBC’s version was also down.
For its part, Beijing is already signaling that it will fall back on its old favorite — spending on infrastructure investment — to pep up GDP growth in the second quarter, despite that being a drag on rebalancing. Inflationary concerns, particularly continuing rising property prices, give policymakers little to no scope to ease monetary policy further. First-quarter growth came in at 7.7% down from 7.9% in the final quarter of 2012. As things stand, second-quarter growth could come in at 7.5%, which is also the official full-year target for 2013.
This Bystander is not as surprised as some to see the December HSBC Purchasing Managers’ Index for December showing further expansion of China’s economy. Infrastructure spending and cautiously easier monetary policy have been visibly kicking in since September.
The final reading of the December HSBC PMI was 51.5, compared to a preliminary reading mid-month of 50.9 and November’s 50.5. A reading above 50 indicates expansion. Domestic demand is making up for sluggish overseas markets; the new export orders sub-index for December fell to 49.2 from November’s 52.1. That manufacturing is growing at its fastest pace since May 2011–and the official PMI due tomorrow will tell much the same story–will give policymakers in Beijing good reason to believe that the momentum of an accelerating pace of expansion can be carried into 2013.
How far and how fast will they let it run? The People’s Bank of China on Saturday flagged the risk of defaults in the shadow banking system. Inflation, a persistent concern, is beginning to edge up again. If either concern is present beyond the first quarter of 2013, some tightening is likely to start.
The long-awaited sign that China’s economic slowdown has finally bottomed out, or just another step towards that trough? HSBC’s Flash China manufacturing purchasing managers’ index (PMI) stabilised in September, ticking up to 47.8 from its nine-month low in August of 47.6. There was also a broad steadying across the sub-indexes, though the one that measures output fell to its lowest level in 10 months.
The numbers are still on the contraction side of the 50 mark that separates contraction from expansion. The overall index shows that new business remains sluggish and the running down of inventories is taking longer than might have been expected. Stimulus measures – tax and interest rate cuts, expanded bank lending and liquidity injections and a green light for bringing forward $150 billion in infrastructure investment — may be taking effect, but gradually.
Inflation showed signs of reviving in August, after hitting a 30-month low in July. Policy makers will be wary of taking further stimulative measures unless they absolutely have to. HSBC’s Flash PMI lets them hold fire for another month.
It doesn’t seem that the Hu-Wen leadership will get to handover to their successors an economy that has put slowing growth behind it. The hit the global economy has taken from the eurocrisis has hurt China’s vast manufacturing industry harder and longer than expected. It now looks as if the slowdown in growth will last well into the third quarter, possibly beyond.
Both the official and the unofficial HSBC purchasing managers’ indices for August were bad news in that regard. The official index fell below the 50 mark dividing expansion from contraction for the first time since last November. HSBC’s version, which reflects more small and medium sized firms than the official index and already below 50, hit its lowest point since March 2009.
Talk of further policy measures to boost growth has intensified. Two interest rate cuts and central bank injections of liquidity via large-scale reverse repos have not had the hoped-for impact. As central bankers in the U.S. and Europe have found, it is not the price or availability of money that is the drag on recovery, it is lack of demand.
China’s policymakers remain wary of aggressive easing and stimulus via infrastructure spending for fear of rekindling inflation and the property bubble that they worked so hard to reduce. The debt overhang from the last round of stimulus, after the 2008 global financial crisis, casts a dark and deeply concerning cloud over policymakers.
This Bystander still thinks they will remain cautious about further easing, hoping that they will be able to get though the year with better than the 7.5% GDP growth that was set as the annual target, all be it by the skin of their teeth. That they were intending to pass on a plumper cushion of growth while setting expectations the longer term structural slowing of the economy will be conveniently forgotten for the moment.
Another sign that the slowdown in China’s economy hasn’t yet bottomed out: The official Purchasing Mangers’ Index (PMI) for July unexpectedly fell to 50.1 from June’s 50.2, it’s lowest level in eight months and barely above the 50 level that separates contraction from expansion. Meanwhile HSBC revised its unofficial PMI, which is weighted more towards activity in small and medium sized manufacturing companies. July’s figure was cut to 49.3 from the 49.5 initially reported last week. That is still up from June’s 48.2, however, albeit in contractionary territory.
The government has been easing monetary policy and allowing bank lending to rise to fund brought-forward infrastructure spending, saying growth and stabilizing the economy is its main priority. It does not want to go so far in that stimulative direction, however, that it risks reinflating the property bubble it has worked so hard to deflate gently. It has been refraining from further interest rate cuts and committing to public-sector infrastructure investments it can’t dial back on in the hope that growth will pick up in the third quarter and that it can ride through the short-term unemployment pressures. Numbers like these latest PMIs tax its patience.
China’s official Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) for non-manufacturing industries brings some glass-half-full cheer to those who believe the slowdown in the economy’s growth has come to an end. It rose to a three-month high of 56.7 for June, up from May’s 55.2. The glass-half-empty crowd will point to the continuing weakness in manufacturing. At 50.2 for June, its official PMI was barely above the line dividing expansion from contraction, a line below which the unofficial HSBC PMI, which is weighted towards export-oriented small and medium-sized companies, already hovers.
For all the efforts to talk up a second-half rebound by China’s economy, the economic indicators fluctuate inconsistently and inconclusively between recovery and continued slowdown. The latest, HSBC’s June flash (preliminary) purchasing managers’ index (PMI), a measure of manufacturing activity primarily in export-oriented small and medium-sized companies, falls plumb in line. At 48.1, slightly down from May’s 48.4, it continues to linger just below the 50 level that separates expansion from contraction, despite the June number being a seven-month low.
Such uncertainty about the pace and duration of the gradual slowdown of growth is mirrored in the series of policy measures taken to combat it, a succession of limited–policymakers would say targeted–stimuli from consumer tax breaks to a token interest rate cut. The big guns have not been fired. Policymakers have held fast on easing curbs on the property market intended to take the speculative froth out of that particular bubble. Talk of a large stimulus package along the lines of even a scaled down version of the one introduced in the face of the global financial crisis in 2008, remains just that, even though the official PMI for June is expected to show an eighth consecutive decline. That would match the length, if not the severity, of its fall in 2008 when it hit a low of 40.9. The only question is whether, having hit 50.4 in May, it will drop below 50 or stay in expansionary territory, and thus keep policymakers confused and confounded for another month.
China’s economy continues to hold the line against a hard landing. The latest preliminary official purchasing managers index (PMI), a measure of manufacturing activity primarily in large and medium-sized companies, edged up to 53.1 in April from March’s 53.1. That was its fifth consecutive monthly increase and its highest level in a year. It follows the preliminary HSBC PMI for April of 49.1, 0.8 points higher than the final reading for March and a reversal of five months of decline. The HSBC index better reflects activity at export-dependent small- and medium-sized manufacturers and usually shows a lower number than the official PMI. For both indexes, a number below 50 signals contraction; above, expansion.
These numbers suggest that the increased bank lending that the central bank has allowed over the past month or so, even for small companies, is having some effect on moderating the slowdown in growth. Or at least overall. The official sub-index for small busineses fell in April by 1.8 to 49.1, highlighting how mixed and tenuous economic growth remains. GDP growth was 8.1% in the first quarter, its fifth consecutive quarterly deceleration. But with inflation still lingering, we expect the central bank to remain measured about further easing on both the monetary and fiscal fronts.
The flash (preliminary) HSBC purchasing managers’ index (PMI) for April came in at a two-months high of 49.1, 0.8 points higher than the final reading for March and reversing a five-months decline. Any number below 50 signals contraction; above, expansion. So factory activity remains sluggish, but not as sluggish as in recent months.
The HSBC index is weighted towards export-dependent small- and medium-sized manufacturers, and usually shows a lower number than the official PMI, which better reflects the activity at large companies. The April number suggests that the increased bank lending that the central bank has allowed over the past month or so, even for small companies, is having some effect on moderating the slowdown in growth. The contraction in new orders is slowing and exports orders increase to a three-months high reflecting the modest recovery being seen in the U.S. Even though the latest PMI figure will helping to ease concerns of a sharp slowdown in growth, we expect the central bank to remain measured about further easing of both monetary and fiscal fronts.