THE GOVERNANCE REORGANISATION rubber-stamped by the recently concluded National People’s Congress has significantly changed the policy-making and regulatory landscape of the financial system.
As with other parts of the administration, it has consolidated agencies and strengthened the Party’s leading role over state administration.
The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) has emerged as the institutional lynchpin of the system with the banking and insurance industry regulators merged into the new China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC) and now reporting to the PBOC.
The central bank will be headed by Yi Gang, previously deputy to Zhou Xiaochuan, now 70 and who is retiring after 15 internationally respected years as governor. Yi nominally reports to the Standing Committee of the NPC but in effect to Liu He, long President Xi Jinping’s closest economic advisor and now elevated to vice-premier in charge of economic policy.
This all leaves China’s prime minister, nominally the country’s second-ranking official and customarily the one responsible for running the economy, pretty much out of the picture. That has been the de facto case for some time as Liu has been steering financial and economic policymaking from the leading group on the economy.
As vice premier, his remit will run to the financial sector, state-owned enterprise reform, industrial policy and relations with the United States. The remit underlines the twin challenges that China faces from a level of debt approaching 300% of GDP and in dealing with a United States that seems ready to start a trade war if that is what it thinks will let it get the upper hand in what the Trump administration sees as the United States existential struggle with China.
Liu’s academic credentials and worldliness are immaculate for a policymaker. However, his bureaucratic experience does not match. Yi’s promotion at the PBOC signals not only policy continuity at the central bank as it tackles deleveraging but the need for operational expertise, which Yi, a 21-year veteran of the central bank, brings.
Similarly, the appointment of Guo Shuqing as the Party boss in the central bank, and thus Yi’s senior in its political hierarchy, adds another experienced and tough-minded financial regulator to the mix — not to mention another ally of Xi’s.
Guo also heads the new CBIRC, previously having been chairman of the China Banking Regulatory Commission where he led the crackdown on shadow financing and helped clean up the interbank lending market. He has also been prominent in taming the more ambitious overseas acquisition ambitions of some Chinese companies and has experience as a stock market and foreign exchange regulator.
How the duopoly at the head of the PBOC will work in practice is illustrated by the fact that Guo also becomes deputy governor, with the ‘reform’ mandate, while Yi has been appointed deputy Party chief.
Zhou combined both the Party boss and governor’s role (although the foreign ministry has a similar split arrangement.)
China has no truck with Western notions of central bank independence as given to the US Federal Reserve, the Bank of England or the European Central Bank. The PBOC is subordinate to the government, which in the Xi era means evermore to the Party as he strengthens the Party’s leading role.
In that light, it will be Liu who will be setting the direction of, and Yi who will be running China’s financial and monetary policy with Guo ensuring regulatory and supervisory coordination on the one hand and political coordination on the other.
All three men are long-standing advocates of financial liberalisation. However, there are urgent short-term issues to resolve, notably the United States and debt, that will slow progress toward liberalisation. Cautious opening up of access to the financial system to foreign investors and more internationalisation of the yuan will continue, albeit not at the cost in either case of deregulation elevating financial risk.
One of the reasons for the consolidation of the supervisory agencies is to cut out as much as possible the regulatory fragmentation that has allowed the shadow banking system to take root. Financial stability is the political priority right now. The marching orders from the trio’s now all-powerful boss are to clean up the debt and rebalance the economy without crashing it — or having the United States crash it for them.