Tag Archives: environmental protection

China Will Rebalance The World’s Energy

Wind turbines in Xinjiang, 2005. Photo credit: Chris Lim. Licenced under Creative Commons

ACROSS THE MORE heavily industrialised provinces, factories and plants are being ordered to shut down or limit production during the winter months. This is both to curtail excess industrial production and also to curb seasonal smog, a byproduct of China being the world’s largest consumer of coal, which provides 65% of its energy.

The newly published annual outlook from the International Energy Agency (IEA) brings a glimmer of a silver lining to that particular dark cloud. China, it says, will remain a ‘towering presence’ in coal markets, but it believes coal use peaked in 2013 and is set to decline by almost 15% over the period to 2040.

China burnt 2.75 billion tonnes of coal in 2013, more than the rest of the world put together.

It is no secret that Beijing sees pollution as a potential political problem and that it is keen for China to go green. Lian Weiliang, deputy head of the National Development and Reform Commission, said earlier this week that the country was ahead of pace in its goal to cut coal capacity by 500 million tonnes within three to five years of 2016, while the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology forecast that environmental protection equipment manufacturing would be a 1 trillion-yuan ($150 billion) industry by 2020.

The new era will be about energy policy where the focus is on electricity, natural gas and cleaner, high-efficiency and digital technologies, not an energy system dominated by coal and a legacy of serious environmental problems, giving rise to almost 2 million premature deaths each year from poor air quality.

The switch will also flow from rebalancing the economy from a development model based on heavy industry, infrastructure development and the export of manufactured goods to one driven by higher-value-added manufacturing, services and domestic consumption.

Signs of the new era are there to be seen. Energy demand growth slowed markedly from an average of 8% per year from 2000 to 2012 to less than 2% per year since 2012. Official plans call for it to slow further to an average of 1% per year to 2040.

Energy efficiency regulation is a large part of the explanation. Without new efficiency measures, the IEA reckons, end-use consumption in 2040 would be 40% higher.

Nonetheless, such is the compounding effect of economic growth that by 2040, per-capita energy consumption in China will exceed that of the European Union and electricity demand for cooling alone in China will exceed the total electricity demand of Japan today.

The IEA reckons that China will need to add the equivalent of today’s United States power system to its electricity infrastructure to meet the demand expected by 2040. Such will be the scale of China’s clean energy deployment, technology exports and outward investment that it will play a huge role in determining global energy trends and in particular provide the momentum behind the low-carbon transition.

“When China changes, everything changes”, as the IEA says.

The agency lays out the future thus:

One-third of the world’s new wind power and solar PV is installed in China … and China also accounts for more than 40% of global investment in electric vehicles. China provides a quarter of the projected rise in global gas demand and its projected imports of 280 billion cubic metres in 2040 are second only to those of the European Union, making China a lynchpin of global gas trade. China overtakes the United States as the largest oil consumer around 2030, and its net imports reach 13 million barrels per day in 2040. But stringent fuel-efficiency measures for cars and trucks, and a shift which sees one-in-four cars being electric by 2040, means that China is no longer the main driving force behind global oil use – demand growth is larger in India post-2025.

China will also continue to lead a gradual rise in nuclear output, overtaking the United States by 2030 to become the largest producer of nuclear-based electricity.

The shift to a more services-oriented economy and a cleaner energy mix will take a decade to have its effects on the skies above. The IEA projects carbon dioxide emissions will plateau at only slightly above current level by 2030 before starting to fall back.

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Railroading China’s Environment

A bevy of red-crowned cranes fly over the wetland of the Zhalong Nature Reserve in northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on July 25, 2009. Located near Qiqihar City in northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, the Zhalong Nature Reserve is a perfect habitat for red-crowned cranes, and also a perfect observation site for bird fans at home and abroad. (Xinhua/Zhang Xiaolong)

Construction of the Harbin-Qiqihar railway was suspended at the beginning of this month because its work camps threatened the Zhalong nature reserve (above), a wetlands nesting ground for red-crowned cranes. Perhaps surprisingly, the Ministry of Environmental Protection is proving itself a diligent guardian of the environment in the face of the rapid expansion of the country’s rail network. Even more surprisingly, the scandal-tainted railways have shown themselves to be pioneers in adopting environmental impact analysis and management into their expansion, according to a new paper* by the World Bank.

The world’s largest national railway development program for more than a century poses significant challenges to the environment and humans alike. There is no sugar-coating that. Some new lines cross sensitive ecosystems, are built in fragile mountain ecosystems, pass through densely populated areas, or threaten the traditional social and geographical connections of the countryside.

Environmental and social protection has been integrated into rail infrastructure development on six fronts, the paper says:

  • The simplest and most obvious one: routing lines around environmentally sensitive sites.
  • Implementing mitigation measures where social and environmental impacts are unavoidable, such as the provision of safe crossings under or over the new lines for humans, domesticated animals, wildlife and irrigation.
  • The use in mountainous areas of tunnel-bridge-tunnel schemes instead of embankments, which are at risk of landslides and erosion, despite bridges and tunnels costing half as much again to twice as embankments.
  • Recycling of waste materials.
  • Minimizing the impact of noise, vibration and erosion during construction.
  • Preserving of cultural resources and historical artifacts. The environmental impact assessment that every infrastructure project has to have includes a physical cultural resources survey. Where relics are suspected and impacts probable, detailed site investigation and excavation by experts is conducted prior to construction.

Building railways is disruptive and destructive, beyond doubt. Few residents who have had new lines pushed through where they live would argue with that. While the World Bank paper, No 6 in its series on China transport topics (Nos. 3 and 4 here), casts the efforts of the railways in a favorable light in terms of their sensitivity to the environment, its authors have a number of recommendations for further improvement:

  • Current environmental regulations and procedures remain specific to each railway administration. The authors suggests introducing an industry-wide code of practice for railway construction environmental management to standardize good practice and ensure uniform application.
  • Environment impact assessment documents are technically strong, but focus on the biophysical environment. Assessments would benefit from deeper analysis of the broader social and cultural impacts, such as land acquisition and involuntary resettlement, and on induced or cumulative impacts.
  • The environmental management plan that is often prepared in connection with any bank financing for each project should become mandatory. Such plans turn the conclusions of an environmental impact assessment into measures incorporated in to project design, bidding documents and implementation.

China: The Environmental Challenge of Railway Development  by Peishen Wang, Ning Yang and Juan D. Quintero, World Bank Office, Beijing. China Transport Topics No. 6,  June 2012.

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More Cutting Out The Waste

A bit, if only a bit, more flesh on the skeleton of regulations being put in place to curb polluters:  a state database of companies that violate environmental rules is being set up, according to Zhang Lijun, vice director of the State Environmental Protection Agency; greater cooperation with the commerce ministry to supervise exporters is also in the works.

No details on timing, or penalties for non-compliance. The two agencies had previously announced that exporters would face a one to three year trading ban if they were found to have seriously violated environmental protection rules, which will no doubt be stretched to cover unsafe products if expedient.

Also announced was a timetable for shuttering outmoded industrial plants that are either polluting or energy inefficient or both. See Cutting Out The Waste. Varying amounts of paper, alcohol and chemicals making capacity will go. Details via Shanghai Daily, here.

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