Tag Archives: bond market

China Becoming A Net Capital Exporter Could Boost Domestic Bond Market

WHAT DOES IT mean that China is set to become a net exporter of direct investment capital for the first time?

Outbound foreign direct investment (FDI) reached $75 billion in the first nine months of the year, up 21.6% on the same period a year earlier. Zhang Xiangchen, a senior official at the commerce ministry, said last week that it looks as if outbound FDI will exceed inbound FDI over the full year, and if not this year then certainly next.

Inbound foreign investment at $87.4 billion between January and September was down 1.4% from the same period of 2013, itself a record year at $118 billion.

A degree of caution is in order when considering these numbers. Most inbound FDI comes from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan. Influences on flows from three places are different to the considerations weighing on the minds of European and American executives pondering investments in operations in China.

Passing the net-capital-exporter milestone was already a matter of if not when. China has $4 trillion in foreign-exchange reserves, an official policy to push Chinese companies out into the world, and an easing back from encouraging inward investment to acquire technology and know-how. The Chinese economy is suffering from chronic domestic over-investment, so the rate of outbound FDI is only likely to increase as Chinese companies hunt for acquisitions abroad.

One question is whether they will avoid the excess of the Japanese companies before them who trod a similar path in the 1980s and ended up paying pretty fancy prices for some assets. Another is the extent to which portfolio investment will become the swing factor in overall capital flows.

The conditions are there for it to do so. Net FDI flows are turning negative. Inbound FDI accounts for less than 3% of fixed-capital formation, down from 6.8% before the 2008 global financial crisis. Exports account for a diminishing share of the economy — at 1% of GDP they are one-tenth as important as in 2007.

Portfolio investment inflows can be a challenge for any economy as they are fickle. If they are to become more important to China’s capital account, then development of domestic financial markets, and particularly the domestic bond market, becomes even more urgent.

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China Said Set For Big Boost To Muni-Bond Market

China looks set to give a big boost to its nascent muni-bond market this year. The Finance Ministry is to quintuple the quota for local government bond issuance to 250 billion yuan ($40 billion) this year, Caixin reports.

In addition, more provinces will reportedly be added to the list of those able to issue bonds directly. Since 1994, the ministry has done that on behalf of local governments but started an experiment in direct issuance in October last year with Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangdong and Zhejiang. That privilege will be extended to six more provinces and municipalities. The ministry is expected to maintain the close control over the bond issuance by the larger group that it has exercised over the trial quartet, including having a big say over what the funds raised can be used for.

Expanding the muni-bond market is both part of the broader reforms of the financial system and local government finances. The latter are teetering under the burden of 10.7 trillion yuan of debt, at least 3 trillion yuan of which falls due by the end of this year. Much of the debt piled up as a result of the stimulus spending in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis. Much of it is infrastructure loans, for things like toll roads to nowhere, that are weighing heavily on the creditworthiness of China’s banks.

Earlier this month the China Banking Regulatory Commission ordered banks to clean up their balance sheets with regard to local government lending. It first told them to do that in June last year, but progress clearly hasn’t been rapid enough, or, as a result of the cooling of both the economy and the property market, problem loans are mounting. Good and bad loans alike were probably rolled over when banks tackled the 2 trillion yuan of local government loans that fell due last year. Another red flag raised by China’s audit office: irregularities it has found with 530 billion yuan worth of the lending. Taken together, an estimated 2 trillion-3 trillion yuan of local government lending has soured, which would be sufficient to raise the banks’ non-performing loan ratios to 5% from their current average of 1.1%.

The new quota of 250 billion yuan for bond issuance won’t wipe away the problem but every little bit helps–though places like Greece serve as a reminder that bond issuance is not an infallible inoculation against the highly contagious disease of government fiscal profligacy. Yet while the immediate priority is to deflate China’s local-government debt bubble before it can go damagingly pop, an expanded muni-bond market also pushes provincial and municipal governments in three other desirable directions: less reliance of land sales to raise revenue, less need for the off-balance sheet financing via captive investment vehicles that local authorities have resorted to get round restrictions on official borrowings, and more transparency generally about their finances.

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China’s Muni-Bond Market Brought Back To Life

This Bystander noted last year that moves were afoot to develop a municipal bond market as a way to put the financing of provincial and local governments on a more transparent footing, and to wean it from the off-balance sheet financing via captive investment vehicles that local authorities have resorted to get round restrictions on official borrowings. As of June, 2010, these captive investment vehicles accounted for 7.7 trillion yuan of local government borrowings (more than three-quarters of the total), and had become some of the most riskiest parts of local government finances in the eyes of the finance ministry.

Now, Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces and the municipalities of Shanghai and Shenzen have been given permission by the ministry to issue three- and five-year bonds on a trial basis. It is the first such direct muni-bond issuance sanctioned in 17 years.  Collectively the quartet are expected to be capped at 20 billion-30 billion yuan first time round. (Update: Shanghai, 7.1 billion yuan; Guangdong, 6.9 billion yuan; Zhejiang, 6.7 billion; and Shenzhen 2.2 billion yuan.) That would be one-tenth of the annual issuance now made by the finance ministry on behalf of local governments to help meet funding shortfalls.

Though the bonds will issued by the four authorities, they will be closely supervised by the ministry. The proceeds of the sales will be kept in a special account at the ministry, which will oversee the payment of interest and principal, and, in effect, guarantee the bonds. The ministry will also have a big say in what the money raised can be used for. Zhejiang is expected to be first out of the gate, raising funds for infrastructure projects. If all goes well, other provincial and city governments will be allowed to follow suit.

Beijing banned local governments from selling their own bonds–and from running deficits, come to that– in 1994 when it became concerned local authorities were running up huge debts they wouldn’t be able to pay. Now policymakers are concerned that local authorities have again borrowed too heavily in the wake of China’s post-2008 global financial crisis stimulus, and that in a slowing economy and cooling property market they will again struggle to repay their loans. Worse, that could trigger a banking crisis.

While the immediate priority is to clean up and deflate the local government debt bubble before it can go damagingly pop, the development of a local-government bond market is in Bejing’s long-term plan for developing its domestic financial markets. Beijing is moving cautiously, however. It remains wary of giving provinces more control over their own development, at the expense of central control. The initial quartet are trustees, so to speak, and financially sound enough to test the waters without too great a risk of mishap.

Beijing will still have to guarantee the debt of many provinces for sometime to come, and there is a real risk that some of the weaker provinces won’t able to maintain their debt service. As Liu Mingkang, head of the banking regulator, noted earlier this week, there are serious concerns about the levels of local government debt. “We cannot deny that local government financing platforms have not been managed well,” he said.

A quick glance west to Greece or east to California reveals the trouble fiscally wayward and heavily indebted national and local governments can get into. Having prided itself on avoiding the worst excesses of the prelude to the recent global financial crisis, Beijing doesn’t want to go there in its aftermath.

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China Takes Another Step To Internationalise The Yuan

The decision to broaden foreign banks’ access to the $2.9 trillion domestic interbank bond market is part of China’s attempt to internationalise its currency. The People’s Bank of China says foreign central banks, lenders in Hong Kong and Macao that already clear yuan and foreign banks involved in cross-border yuan trade settlement have been invited to join a pilot project to “encourage cross-border renminbi trade settlement” and “broaden investment channels for renminbi to flow back”. The goal is to cut China’s dependency on the U.S. dollar for trade and to promote the yuan’s standing as a potential reserve currency.

Less than one fifth of one percent of China’s foreign trade is denominated in yuan. If foreigners are going to use the yuan more widely, trade alone won’t do it; they have to have somewhere to invest in yuan. So for the first time non-resident firms will be able to buy and sell yuan-denominated government and corporate debt directly (there is already limited ability to do so indirectly via exchange-trade securities). There will, however, be quotas on volumes. How quickly those are expanded will be a measure of of how well the central bank thinks the experiment is going.

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